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Tuesday, October 26, 2010


In this short account of Iranian history, the subject was not treated from the beginning and we didn't go into details- which would require a dozen of volumes at last. There are many other aspects of Iranian civilization that you as the foreign tourist will discover for yourself- when you are here in Iran.
Pre-Achaemenian Iran (Before 7,000 BC)
c 4,000-2,000 Bronze Age settlements of Tappeh Sialk, Susa, Tappeh Gyian, Tappeh Hasanlu, and Teppeh Hessar.
c 1,200 Zenith of Elamite Kingdom. Iron Age. Settlement of Chogha Zanbil in Khuzestan.
844 First mention of Iranians in Assyrian texts.
825 Rise of the Medes.
728 Deioces founds Median Empire.
722 Founding of Hagmatana ( next Hamadan).
Achaemenian Iran (700-330 BC)
c 700-675 Achamenes.
c 675-640 Teispes.
648 Assyrians destroy Elamite Susa.
c 640-600 Cyrus I.
c 630-533 Zoroaster and founding of Zoroastrianism.
612-606 Medes and Babylonians over overthrow Assyrian empire.
Destruction of Nineveh.
c 600-599 Cambyses I.
c 599-530 Cyrus II (the Great). The first Human right issued by Cyrus the great.
550 Cyrus defeats the Medes at Pasargade.
547 Cyrus defeats Croesus and takes Lydia.
539 Cyrus conquers Babylon and Syria.
530-522 Cambyses II.
525 Cambyses conquers Egypt.
522-486 Darius I, the Great. Rock relief at Mount Bisotun.
Revival of Susa. Persepolis. Darius broadens the Empire from the Indus to the Nile and Danube.
Tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rustam.
490 Battle of Marathon, won by the Greeks.
486-464 Xerxes I.
480-479 Battle of Salamis and Battle of Plataea, won by the Greeks.
464-425 Artaxerxes I.
420-404 Darius II.
404-358 Artaxerxes II.
336-330 Darius III.
330 Alexander the Great invades Iran, destroys the uncompleted Persepolis, and takes the Iranian Empire.
323 Death of Alexander.
Seleucid and Parthian Iran(312 BC-224 AD)
312-281 Seleucid I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Greek dynasty.
281-261 Antiochus I Soter.
261-246 Antiochus II Theos.
250 The Arsacid dynasty of Parthians capture Khorasan from the Seleucid.
246-225 Seleucid II Khallinikos.
225-223 Antiochus Hierax Seleucus Soter.
223-186 Antiochus III Megas.
187-175 Seleucus IV Philopator.
175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
163-162 Antiochus V Eupator.
161-138 Mithridates I founds Parthian Empire.
138-124 Phrates II.
129 Phrates II and the Parthians defeat Seleucids.
124-123 Artabanus II.
123-87 Mithridates II. Zenith of Parthian Empire.
87 BC-Decline of the Parthian Empire
000- Jesus and founding of Christian.
224 AD-Rise of Rome.
Sassanian Iran (224-651)
224-241 Artaxerxes I over throws the Parthians and founds the Sassaniian Empire , his capital Ctesiphon.
241-272 Shapur I invades Roman Empire(252-261), capturing the Emperor Valerian in 260.
242-273 Preaching of Mani (executed in 273).
250-300 The conversion of Armenia to Christianity.
272-273 Hormuzd I.
273-276 Bahram I.
276-293 Bahram II.
283 The Emperor Garus takes Cteisphon, cedes Armenia and north Mesopotamia to Rome.
302-309 Hormuzd II.
309-379 Shapur II.
363 Shapur III defeats Julian the Apostate in battle, regaining Armenia and north Mesopotamia.
379 Peace is established with Rome.
379-383 Artaxerxes II.
383-388 Shapur III.
388-399 Bahram IV.
399-420 Yazdegerd I.
410 Alaric captures Rome.
420-438 Bahram V.
425 White Huns raid Khorasan.
438-457 Yazdegerd II.
457-459 Hormuzd III.
459-484 Firuz.
484-488 Balash.
488-497 Kavadh.
c 489 Nestorian Church founded.
479 Kavadh deposed.
499-531 Kavadh restored. Zenith of Sassanian power.
529 Justinian closes the schools. Scholars emigrate to Iran.
531-579 Khosrow I (Chosroes).
c 570 Birth of the Prophet Mohammed. Yemen under Iranian control.
579-590 Hormuzd IV.
591-528 Khosrow II.
608 Sassanian attack Byzantium.
614 Khosrow II captures Damascus and Jerusalem, bringing the True Cross to Ctesiphon.
622 Khosrow III defeated by Heraclius. Year of the Prophet's light from Mecca (Hijra).
632 Death of the prophet Mohammed.
632-651 Yazdegerd III, the last Sassaniian Monarch.
635 The Arabs take Damascus.
636 The Arabs defeat the Iranians at Qadisia.
637 The Arabs take Ctesiphon (Tisphoon).
641 The Arabs defeat the Iranians at Nahavand. Iran is Formally annexed to the Arab empire.
651 Death of Yazdegerd III, whose family and followers flee to China.
Early Islam (661-1036)
661 Death of Imam Ali, by Kharijia fanatics, at Kufa.
661-750 Ummayad Caliphate, ruling from Damascus.
744-749 Shiite revolt, led by Abu Muslim, to establish the Abbasid Caliphate.
750-1257 Abbasid Caliphate, ruling from Baghdad.
756-1031 Western Caliphate of Cordoba, founded on the fight of the last Ummayad.
861-872 Tahirid Dynasty in Khorasan ( First Iranian Governor after Islam founded at North -East of Iran).
872-903 Saffarid Dynasty in Khorasan.
903-999 Samanid Dynasty in Khorasan.
935-1055 Rise of the Buvayhids near Shiraz, ruling Kerman, Khuzestan, Fars, Isfahan, Rey, Hamadan, and Baghdad (in several branches).
c950-1020 Ferdowsi, poet of the Shahnameh.
962-1040 Ghaznavi dynasty rises in the east, challenging the Samanids.
980-1036 Avicenna, philosopher and physician.
Seljuks and Mongols (1037-1335)
1037 Seljuk Turks invade Iran under Tughril Beg.
1055 Tughril ends Buvahid rule.
1063-1072 Alp Arsalan.
1073-1092 Malik Shah. Zenith of Sejuk power.
1090-1257 Ismailii Society of Assassins under the Master of Mountains terrorize northern Iran from the Valley of Alamut.
1117-1157 Sanjar. End of Seljuk rule in Iran.
1136-1320 Attar, mystical poet of Mantiq at-Tair.
1140-c1202 Nizami, poet of the Makhzan al-Asrar.
c1184-1291 Sa'di, poet of the Bustan and Gulistan.
1207-1273 Rumi, poet of the Masnavi, and founder of the Molevi Order of whirling dervishes.
1219-1227 Changiz Khan devastates Iran.
1256-1265 Hulagu Khan.
1258 Mongols sack Baghdad. End of Abbasid Caliphate.
1260 Mongols capture Aleppo, Hama, Damascus.
1265-1284 Abaqa.
1284-1291 Arghun.
1291-1295 Gaikhatu.
1295 Baidu.
1295-1304 Ghazan, greatest of the Ilkhans, a Muslim convert.
1304-1316 Olijaitu.
1317-1335 Abu Sa'id. Collapse of the Ilkhanid State.( The First Iranian Governor after Mongols)
1320-1389 Hafez, Shirazi poet.
Timurid Iran (1380-1500).
Iran Captured once again by Turk-Mongols.
1380-1393 Timur conquers Iran. Suspension of the Nestorian Church.
1397 Timur invades India.
1405 Death of Timur. Accession of Shahrokh. Anarchy in Iran.
1411-1492 Jami, poet of the Haft Awrang.
1447-1452 Ulugh Beg.
1452-1466 Abu Sa'id the Timurid.
1500 Overthrow of the Timurids.
Safavid Iran (1502-1736).
The First Islamic-Iranian government raised from Ardabil by Sheyk Saffi-Ald'din-e Ardabili.
1502-1524 Ismail I. Conversion of Iran to Shiite Islam.
1514-1555 War with Turkey.
1524-1576 Tahmasb I.
1576-1577 Ismail II.
1577-1578 Mohammed Khodabandeh
1587-1629 Abbas I. Capital transferred to Isfahan. Zenith of Safavid power.
1629-1642 Safi I.
1642-1666 Abbas II.
1666-1694 Suleiman I.
1694-1722 Hossein.
1722 Afghans capture Isfahan.
1722-1732 Tahmasb II.
1724 Mahmud takes Shiraz. Massacre of Safavid princes.
1732-1736 Abbas III. Downfall of Safavids.
Modern Iran (1729 to date).
1729 Nader Quli expels Afghans.
1736-1747 Afsharid dynasty founded by Nader Quli.
1747-1748 Adil.
1748-1750 Shahrokh the Afsharid.
1750-1779 Karim Khan founds Zand dynasty.
1779-1785 Ali Murad.
1785-1789 Ja'far.
1789-1794 Lutf Ali Khan.
1795-1797 Mohammed Qajar overthrows Zand dynasty and founds Qajar dynasty.
1797-1834 Fath Ali Shah.
1812 Treaty of Gulistan. Iran cedes Armenia, Qafqaz (later Azarbaijan Rep.), territories to Russia.
1827 Russia seizes Tabriz.
1834-1848 Mohammed Shah.
1848-1896 Naser ad-Din Shah.
1896-1906 The Constitutional Revolution.
1907-1909 Promulgation of the Constitution.
1906 Mohammed Ali Shah.
1908 Nationalist uprising.
1909 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company ( later British Petroleum ) formed.
1909-1923 Ahmad Shah. Reza Khan appointed as Prime Minister ( 1923 )
1924-1925 Qajar dynasty over thrown and plans prepared to establish a republic , with Reza Khan as its President.
1925-1941 Proclamation of Reza Khan as Reza Shah , founder of the Pahlavi dynasty.
1941 Invasion of The Allied Forces. Reza Shah abdicates in favor of his son Mohammed Reza.
1941-1979 Mohammed Reza Shah.
1943 Tehran Conference ( 3 world war leaders Churchill , Roosevelt, and Stalin congregated in Tehran. )
1951 Dr. Mohammad Musaddeq becomes Prime Minister and presses for the nationalization of oil industry.
1952 The Mohannad Reza Shah flees the country , appointing General Zahedi Prime Minister.
1953 CIA coup d'etat against Dr. Musaddeq (19 August ). Musaddeq was arrested.
1954 Oil concession granted to a consortium of companies , of whom British Petroleum ( 40% ) held a majority interest.
1955 Iran joins the Baghdad Pact.
1959 Iran signed defense agreement with the USA
1963 (05 June) Religious nationwide uprising led by Ayatollah Khomeini , in protest to the so-called White Revolution
1967 Coronation of Mohammed Reza and his Queen Farah Diba on October 26.
1969 Flood disaster in Azerbaijan. Renewed tension between Iran and Iraq on the Arvand Rud ( Arab calls Shat Al Arab ) question.
1971 2,500th anniversary of the Iranian monarchy celebrated.
1978 Islamic Revolution over throws Pahlavi 's dynasty.
1979 Islamic republic of Iran founded .
Mr. Abol Hasan Bani Sadr, First president of Islamic republic of Iran elected.
1979 Iraq attacked to Iran.
1988 The Iraqis offence was repelled after 8 years irreconcilable war.
1989 Ayat-ollah Khomeini the leader of revelotion Died.
2003 Earthquake destroyed 80% of Bam Citadel and city of Bam.
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